This is an issue with Chrome, not AdBlock. We found a few possible solutions to this error after an extensive search. Please try them in order, installing AdBlock after each step. Only proceed to the next step if you're still getting the error.
Empty the Recycle Bin. (From this post on a computer repair blog)
Pause your antivirus program, if you use one. (And of course you are using one. :)
Empty your Temp directory, located in %temp% or %USERPROFILE%\AppData\Local\Temp\
(Thanks for that suggestion, Joe!)
Follow these Chrome troubleshooting steps.